Official name: Sweden (Sverige in Swedish) or the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sverige).
Short History: In the ninth and 10th centuries, the Viking culture flourished in Sweden. Trade, attacks and colonization were made in this period to the east, to the Baltic states, Russia and the Black Sea. In 1397, the three Scandinavian countries, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, were united under one king (the Kalmar Union). This was a personal union, not a political one, and in the 15th century, Sweden resisted the central leadership of the Danish king, even through armed rebellion. The modern Swedish state is founded in 1523, by the dissolution of the Kalmar Union and the election of Sweden's first king, Gustav Vasa. The 17th century territorial expansion leads to the formation of the Empire of Sweden. Finland, like other territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula, are gradually lost in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, Norway is ceded to Sweden, and the attempted preservation of sovereignty is solved by the military campaign of the King of Sweden against Norway (1814), concluded by the Constitution of the personal union that will last until 1905. This was the last war in which Sweden was engaged. From 1814, the policy of non-alignment in time of peace and neutrality in wartime, in force and today, was adopted. Sweden remained a neutral country during the two world Wars. It continued to be unaligned during the Cold War and is currently not a member of any military alliance. Sweden becomes a member of the EU in 1995. Sweden has not adopted the euro.
Capital and main cities: Stockholm (capital), Gothenburg; Malmo; Uppsala; Linköping, Norrköping; Jonköping, Helsingborg; Östersund
Area and Territorial divisions: 449,964 km². Sweden is divided into 21 counties (län). In each county there is an administrative office (Länsstyrelse) appointed by the Government and a council (Landsting) elected. Each county is further divided into the common (kommuner).
Population: 9 514 406 inhabitants, East. June 2012
Official language: Swedish.
National Day: June 6 –the Day of the Swedish flag, celebrated from 1916, became a national day, from 1983. On June 6, 1523, the election of the first king of Sweden, Gustav Vasa, took place. On the same date, in 1809, the Constitution was adopted.
form of government: constitutional monarchy.
Internal political situation: Head of state-King Carl XVI Gustaf; Prime Minister-Stefan Löfven; Minister of Foreign Affairs-Margot Wallström.