Location: In the south-eastern Central Europe, in the north of the Balkan peninsula, on the lower Danube.
Borders: Romania's borders sum total 3,149.9 km. Two-thirds of these (2,064.4 km) are determined by the Danube and the Prut and Tisza rivers or follow the Black Sea Shoreline line, while one third (1,085.5 km) represents the land boundary. The Romanian territorial waters stretch to 12 nautical miles off the Black Sea.
According to article 3 of the Constitution, the territory of Romania has a common administrative organization, towns and counties.
The municipality, the elementary administrative organization, consists of one or more villages and is run by a local council and a elected mayor. Romania has 2,685 communes totalling 13,285 villages, respectively with an average of five villages per municipality.
The city is the administrative unit headed by a local council and a elected mayor. More important cities can be declared municipalities. Romania has 263 cities, of which 82 are municipalities.
The county is the administrative unit headed by a county council and a prefect. The county Council is elected to coordinate the activity of communal and city councils, aiming at focusing interest on public services of importance at county level. The government appoints a prefect in every county to be his local representative. Romania has 41 counties plus the capital city of Bucharest, which has a similar status to the county. A county has an average area of 5,800 km2 and a population of 500,000 inhabitants.
Bucharest is the most important and most populous city in Romania, being the political, administrative, economic, country centre. It is located in S-SE Romania. The city stretches over an area of 228 km2 and has 2,016,000 inhabitants (representing 9% of the country's total population and 15% of the urban population), being the third city as a number of inhabitants in the region, after Athens and Istanbul. The city of Bucharest was first mentioned in 1459, as the seat of the Romanian country under Vlad Ţepeş, although the settlement dates back to the 14th century. Between the 17th-19th centuries, Bucharest was the capital of the Romanian country, and in 1862 it became the capital of Romania.
The official national currency in Romania is (from 1867) the Leu (Romanian leu). The name (namesake with the name of the lion animal) comes from Löwenaler (which had the figure of a lion on the reverse), the silver coin put into circulation in the Netherlands since the sixteenth century, after which it became the valuation currency. The Lion Subdivision is the ban, 1 leu = 100 money. As of 1991, inflation has basically taken out this subdivision of the LEU. The LEU's internal conversion was introduced in November 1991. The exchange rate for the LEU is variable. The current monetary liberalisation has entered into force since February 1998. Any Romanian citizen is free to carry out currency transactions for any sums of money.
On July 1, 2005 the new Leu was introduced into circulation, obtained by cutting four zeros from the Old lion's tail (1 new leu = 10,000 old lei). Also, the lion's subdivision –the coin was reintroduced. There are coins of 1, 5, 10 and 50 money and banknotes of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 lei.
In 1990, December 1 was proclaimed the National day. This day represents the anniversary of the Great Union of Alba Iulia, from 1918, when the unification of Transylvania with Romania was voted, marking the Union of all Romanians in one State and the establishment of the unity of the Romanian nation-state.
1 and 2 January (New Year), the first and the second day of Easter, 1 May, Sunday of Pentecost and the following day (in May/June), August 15 (Assumption), November 30 St. Andrew the first called, the patron saint of Romania, 1 December –national Day, 25 and December 26 (Christmas).
Eastern European Time (GMT + 2 hours). From 1979, the Summer Time zone (GMT + 3 hours) applies from the last Sunday of March until the last Sunday of October. Romania has the same time zone as the Republic of Moldova, Finland, Greece, Israel, Egypt and the South African Republic.
This name was adopted in 1862, after the founding of the nation-state by uniting the two Romanian principalities, Wallachia and Moldavia, in 1859.
International abbreviation ROU.